Saturday, May 16, 2020
Lecture 8 Nucleic Acid-Based Measurements Text Chapter 13 Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Total community DNA Ã¢â¬ ¢ Extract DNA from soil Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â remove cells from soil separate cells from soil lyse cells separate DNA from cells Ã¢â¬â purify DNA Ã¢â¬ ¢ Extract DNA from soil Ã¢â¬â Extract DNA from cells in presence of soil Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bead-beating Ã¢â¬ ¢ chemical or enzymatic treatment Ã¢â¬â Sodium dodecyl sulfate or lysozyme Wednesday, July 24, 2013 DNA purification Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cesium chloride gradient centrifugation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Kits Low density DNA High density Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Visualizing nucleic acidsBlotting Ã¢â¬ ¢ Southern blotting Ã¢â¬â DNA Ã¢â¬ ¢ Northern blotting Ã¢â¬â RNA Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Agarose gel electrophoresis - Stain gel with ethidiumÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦ednesday, July 24, 2013 50 Ã µm Combining ELF and CF319a probes to determine what portion of the PO4aseactive cells in floc fall within cytophaga-flavobacteria group ELFTM PO4ase CF319a FISH probe activity FISH probe PO4ase activity 17% of total community PO4ase activity contributed by cytophaga Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Summary FISH provides information on Ã¢â¬â Presence of specific populations Ã¢â¬â Morphology of specific populations Ã¢â¬â Relative numerical contribution of specific populations to total community Ã¢â¬â Spatial relationships between populations Ã¢â¬â Functions associated with specific populations Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Gene probe detection of a DNA sequence Digoxigenin (DIG) Probes range in size from 18-100bp ssDNA Denatured ssDNA from suspect bacterium Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Alternative gene probe detection of a DNA sequence Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Exploring microbial activity Ã¢â¬ ¢Need to know sequence of gene being expressed Ã¢â¬ ¢Alternatively, use random hexamer primers, then sequence cDNA product to identify gene being expressed Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Make single-strand cDNA from mRNA Ã¢â¬â downstream antisense primer or random hexamer and RT to make complete cDNA copy of RNA molecule Ã¢â¬ ¢ Use cDNA, DNA polymerase, and a downstream primer in conventional PCR Ã¢â¬â extension leads to double-stranded DNA Ã¢â¬ ¢ Regular PCR of dsDNA Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Applications of RT-PCR Ã¢â¬ ¢ Detection ofShow MoreRelatedFiber Sensors For Bio Sensing1289 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdetection of the analyte. This analyte has a function to join physicochemical detectors and the components that are biological. A sensitive biological element includes cell receptors, organelles, enzymes, tissues, antibodies, microorganisms and nucleic acids. This element that is sensitive biological is a kind of bio-mimetic or a biological material which binds with the analyte during the study. There is another way to create biological sensitive elements and that is biological engineering throughRead MoreScience Study Of The Natural World1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesneutrons Adhesion - the attraction that sticks two different materials together Surface Tension - the force in liquids that attempts to minimize surface area Electrolysis - the process where an electric current is passed through an ionized solution Amino Acid - the building blocks of proteins Polymerization - the process that creates polymers Catalyst - a material that speeds up a chemical reaction Activation Energy - the minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction Denature - remove naturalRead MoreWhat Is The Purity Check Of DNA?982 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbut are generally higher, which may mean that there are traces of RNA present in the sample since the expected value for RNA is around 2.0. Finally, the purity check regarding the A260/230 ratio is significantly lower than the expected 1.8 for nucleic acids since they ended up being closer to around 0.41, which is even further away from the theoretical value compared to those yielded from the precipitation method samples in table 2. b. The NanoDrop machine essentially calculates the concentrationRead MoreThe Resistance Of Bacteria And Antibiotics1615 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesviruses which consist of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, which is only able to multiply only within the living cells of a host. Physically, they are made up of a protein coat called a capsid. This is a protein shell that encases the nucleic acid. This shell is made up of protein arranged into subunits known as capsomers. They are closely associated with the nucleic acid and mirror its configuration. The capsid has three functions: firstly, it protects the nucleic acid from digestion by enzymesRead MoreIntroduction Immunosensor or commonly known as Biosensor came together by combining a biological1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages There are three components that made up a biosensor- bioreceptor, bio transducer and electronic system. a. Bioreceptor is also known as bio-recognition component. Ã¯Æ' ¨ It is where it uses biomolecules from organisms such as enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acid and a cell as a whole. It is design to interact with the specific analyte of interest to produce an effect measurable by the transducer. Ã¯Æ' ¨ The key requirement for a bioreceptor is that needed to have a high selectivity for the analyte among theRead MoreResearch Methods And Design : Cell Types860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesresonance imaging, coated with a novel copolymer (CP-PEI) comprised of short chain polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted to the natural polysaccharide, chitosan (CP), which allows efficient loading and protection of the nucleic acids.8 PEG will be grafted to depolymerized chitosan (chitosan-g-PEG or CP). CP coated iron oxide nanoparticles (NP-CP) are prepared in the presence of chitosan-g-PEG by the co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric chlorides with ammonium hydroxide. TheRead MoreLiterature Reviews On Biosensors And Risk Perpection And Communications1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescells. Given that the nucleic acid aptamers function in vivo across blood plasma, it limitations has proven not to be efficient and accurate in cancer diagnosis. Due to its polynucleotides nature, n ucleic acid aptamers are naturally susceptible to enzymes degradation by exo-nucleases or enod-nucleases, leading to a reduced in vivo circulatory half-life . The use of aptamers in animal models of disease and in human is seen to have reduced stability of natural nucleic acids in biological media Read MorePollution from Synthetic Dyes1379 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesforbidden with normal atmospheric triplet oxygen. 1.3.4 Sulfide Analysis The formation of methylene blue after the reaction of hydrogen sulphide with dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and iron (III) at pH 0.4 Ã¢â¬â 0.7 is utilized to focus by photometric measurements. Sulfide concentration in the range of (20 ppb to 1.5 ppm). The test is highly delicate and sensitive and the blue coloration developing upon contact of the reagents with dissolved H2S is stable for 60 min. Ready-to-use kits for example the SpectroquantRead MoreWater Is Convenient Environment For Microorganisms Growth1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesquantify antigens that may still be present and reactive in noninfectious or inactivated microbes involve defined substrate methods, fast detections using chromogenic substances, application of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, IMS/ culture. measurements Ã ²-D-glucuronidase activity was experimentally measured by using colored or fluorescent markers that change color after enzyme action. The identification based on enzyme Ã ²-glucuronidase (product of gene uidA) specific to 94-97% of E.coli is monitoredRead MoreThe Effect Of Water Temperature On The Health Of An Estuary1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmay occur naturally, for example in shallow water overlying seagrass areas, higher than expected pH values may indicate blooms of phytoplankton or macroalgae. What factors affect PH level? Pollution generated from rain events, such as acid runoff from exposed acid sulphate soils on land, can drain into an estuary and reduce pH values dramatically. Alternatively, biological processes of photosynthesis associated with plants and algae can raise pH levels well above the normal marine range through removal
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Use of Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA technology is the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism.(1) This is the process of using recombinant DNA technology to enable the rapid production of human protein from a single gene of insulin. Firstly the single gene required must be isolated. This can be done three ways: Either by working backwards from the protein- Finding the amino acid sequence for the protein needed, the order of bases can be established using known genetic code. New DNA can be made from this sequence of bases resulting in artificial gene made from complementary DNA. ByÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They are short circular strands of DNA found in some bacteria. The joining process is controlled by the enzyme ligase and is called ligation. The new circular DNA molecule produced is called recombinant DNA as it contains genes from the original plasmid and the human gene. Finally if to discover if the uptake of DNA had been successful a gene for antibiotic resistance is used. If bacterial cells have successfully taken up the recombinant DNA then it will be resistant to the antibiotic. They are then grown in fermentors. Cells that have not taken up the DNA will be killed by the antibiotic. (3) Recombinant DNA technology has many different uses. It is used for genetically engineered micro organisms. This is when human genes are inserted into bacteria which are then grown in fermentors. The bacteria then produce a human protein. So, large amounts of insulin and human growth hormone can be produced cheaply. It is used to map human chromosomes (The human genome project). The aim of this is to create a map of all the human chromosomes identifying the precise location of every gene. This will help to develop a new gene therapy treatment It can be use for identification of mutations-people may be tested for the presence of mutated proteins that may be associated with breast cancer, retinoblastoma, and neurofibromatosis. It can be used forShow MoreRelatedThe Debated Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology Essay703 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"[...] any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.Ã¢â¬ This statement is often used to describe the fundamental aim of biotechnology around the world. Karl Ereky, one of the foremost proponents of the term biotechnology foresaw that Ã¢â¬Å"merging biology and technology could be used to transform living substances into products that are more useful than in their natural state,Ã¢â¬ thus benefitingRead MoreThe Potential Of Manipulating Genetic Engineering1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesproducts to consume. With two conflicting stances on this DNA technology, there essentially cannot be a resolution to this controversy; only arguments and reasons. However, what exactly is each sideÃ¢â¬â¢s rationale? Through observation and analyzation, each stanceÃ¢â¬â¢s reasonings will appear; as well as vital information about this DNA Technology itself. Also, this will allow me to confirm my beliefs on this controversial topic. As of right now, the technology appears to effectively split the human society, inRead MoreThe Use Of Recombinant Dna For Science And Medicine909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe use of recombinant DNA technology has been a huge advancement to science. In the early 1970s the first recombinant DNA was produced (Ã¢â¬Å"1972 FirstÃ¢â¬ , 2013). Researchers Stanley Cohen and Hebert Boyer used restriction enzymes to cut DNA at specific sites, and then fused them back together to form their recombinant vector (Ã¢â¬Å"1972 FirstÃ¢â¬ , 2013; Cederbaum, S., et al., 1984). Through transformation the vector is then inserted into a host cell to amplify their hybrid DNA, also known as recombinant DNARead MoreDna And Ethics Of Recombinant Dna1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Recombinant DNA and Ethics Brooke Boland BIO/410 - Genetics October 23, 2017 Miranda Gauthier Recombinant DNA and Ethics Recombinant DNA technology has become a powerful influence to many fields including medicine, pharmaceuticals and agriculture. Genetic modifications of plants, animals and other organisms have allowed scientists to improve the quality of human life. As genetic engineering continues to rapidly grow, many ethical, social and legal issues arise evaluating the risksRead MoreThe Field Of Bioinformatics Is The Process Of Technology1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. In your own words, describe what the field of bioinformatics is; write one paragraph (about 300 words) about this; be very descriptive. The field of bioinformatics is the process of technology by the use of computers (BioPlanet, 2015). This field manages biological information (BioPlanet, 2015). We all use computers on a regular basis, but computers are capable of much more they can store biological information, gather this information, analyze and integrate genetic information as well (BioPlanetRead MoreThe Human Of Recombinant Bacteria1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRecombinant bacteria is a bacterium cell that has had its genome changed, by the alteration, or edition of a gene. Recombinant DNA is DNA that has been artificially prepared by cutting DNA into smaller fragments and joining fragments together, that would not normally be found together naturally- even fragments taken from different organisms.( Principles of Gene Manipulation sixth edition, S.B. Primrose, R.M. Twyman and R.W. Old ) DNA can be cut using the enzyme Restriction endonuclease, which recognisesRead MoreEssay on Facts of Cloning1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescloning. This may be the most popular type of cloning known in society, but there are two others used in the scientific community. The two types are, recombinant DNA cloning (DNA cloning), and therapeutic cloning. The type of cloning used for Dolly was reproductive cloning, which is, a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another animal that is currently in existence or once was. More specifically there is a process known as SCNT (somatic cell nuclear transfer). Read MoreThe Benefits of Genetic Engineering Essay1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere are many aspects of genetic engineering and to thoroughly understand it looking into each is absolutely necessary. In order to understand genetic engineering, the key terms in this controversy that must be defined are the following: recombinant DNA technology, cloning, gene therapy, and the humane genome project. Genetic engineering is the alteration of genetic material by direct intervention in the genetic processes with the purpose of producing new substances or improving functions ofRead MoreBiotechnology Research Paper1794 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmost advanced form was microbial fermentation. This was mostly used for food preservation and alcoholic beverages. Although that technology is stilled used, it as been integrated with the recombinant DNA technology, allowing for a more specialized approach therefore widening the range of products the technology can be used for. With the addition of recombinant DNA technology scientists have been able to manufacture human insulin, the hepatitis B vaccine, the calf enzyme used in cheese- making, biodegradableRead MoreDna Lab Report1345 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The genomic DNA sample concentration of 28.5 ng/Ã ¼L and its A260/A280 ratio of 1.85 indicates that the DNA was relatively pure since a 260/280 ratio of ~1.8 is generally accepted as pure for DNA (Cox, Doudna OÃ¢â¬â¢Donnell, 2015). The ratio of white colonies to blue colonies observed on the blue-white screen plate was 31:37, which shows that there was a greater number of E. coli DH5-Ã ± that did not contain the plasmid with the foreign gene insert. Therefore, out of all of the E. coli DH5-Ã ± cells that
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Compare And Contrast The Star And The Necklace Essay Compare And Contrast The Star And The NecklaceThe story The Star, which was written in 1970s, is trying to say that we need to understand the truth of our fate rather than put on blinders and quit refusing everything else that we dont want to see. In the story The Necklace written by Guy De Maupassant the woman worked herself to the bone for ten years trying to pay off the debt used to pay for the necklace she lost at the ball. The woman in this story is a poor pretty woman who thought she deserved a better life than one that she already had. The main character in this story is a woman named Louis, the daughter of simple working class man. Both stories include a sub theme of a hope for a better life, in which all men were created equal and all the ugly injustices in the world would cease to exist. But the cold hard fact is that we humans have this innate sense of optimism, which blocks our thinking for reality, because without it we would have no reason for living. In the case of the woman in the story The necklace the object being the necklace which she eventually loses and tries to replace. Instead of hiding the truth and facing the music, which was harder, to take than when she lied. The old adage which says, What a tangled web weave when we first start to deceive. We humans cant handle the truth. We think we know what is the truth. What that really is just bullshit. Its arrogance-playing tricks on our minds making us think we are in control of our lives. If we really were in control of our lives then why cant we control every little aspect of it that gives discomfort? Because we cant, because we dont know how, and eventually the truth will show that is we dont what the truth really is. Using the slippery slope logic one can conclude that the two stories are more similar than they are different but because the assignment at hand requires for me to compare and contrast in an illustrative manner then I guess I should start. In the story the Star the setting is on a rocket ship with astronauts and the setting in the necklace is old France in the late 1970s. The Star is a science fiction story while the necklace is an illustrative story. In the necklace the story is told from the third people point of view compared to the Stars point of view is in the first person. The necklace discusses the social classes distinction in detail while in the star is describes the Astrology in detail. The person who wrote the necklace was French was illustrative the author of the star was clearly American. The main focus of the story is based on the importance of having money while the star is about the survival of the fittest. But the cold hard fact is that we humans have this innate sense of optimism, which blocks our thinking for reality, because without it we would have no reason for living. In the case of the woman in the story The necklace the object being the necklace which she eventually loses and tries to replace. Instead of hiding the truth and facing the music, which was harder, to take than when she lied. The old adage which says, What a tangled web weave when we first start to deceive. We humans cant handle the truth. We think we know what is the truth. What that really is just bullshit. Its arrogance-playing tricks on our minds making us think we are in control of our lives. If we really were in control of our lives then why cant we control every little aspect of it that gives discomfort? Because we cant, because we dont know how, and eventually the truth will show that is we dont what the truth really is. Using the slippery slope logic one can conclude that the two stories are more similar than they are different but because the assignment at hand requires for me to compare and contrast in an illustrative manner then I guess I should start. In the story the Star the setting is on a rocket ship with astronauts and the setting in the necklace is old France in the late 1970s. The Star is a science fiction story while the necklace is an illustrative story. In the necklace the story is told from the third people point of view compared to the Stars point of view is in the first person. The necklace discusses the social classes distinction in detail while in the star is describes the Astrology in detail. The person who wrote the necklace was French was illustrative the author of the star was clearly American. The main focus of the story is based on the importance of having money while the star is about the survival of the fittest. The similarities in both stories include that both deal with theme of hope. One is more graphic in the account of survival as portrayed in the star but the details in how the girl had to work hard in how each detail in her work day was shown through words was illustrative. Both deal with the issue of false pretense that living a certain life would bring true happiness, which in both case should that it didnt. The dismal setting Star is in contrast with the grandeur at which the Necklace is played out. The false hope that we control our own destiny is both misinterpreted by everyone. That is why these two stories, which are about two different subjects, seem to have the same effect on a person, which is depression. .
Saturday, April 18, 2020
Morgan Baker Professor Wilhite PHI353-DE March 31, 2019 Jewish Synagogue: A Gangster's Daughter I visited the Jewish Synagogue named "Temple Beth EL" right here in riverside. I got the opportunity to attend a lecture series that dealt with Jews and the Law. Marcia Rosen was the guest speaker and she spoke about her book titled "The Gangster's Daughter" and she opened up her message by saying "Our history and experiences can define us, inspire our actions, and as writers impact our words and stories. Mine most definitely has my father was a small-time gangster". She explains that she grew up in an unusual enviroment to some but an everyday reality to her. Gangster is a word that is not commonly used in a church setting however, her story is far from the norm. she spoke about how she visited her dad's gambling hall, a place hidden behind closed doors which could be referred to some as speakeasies so to speak . In her kitchen at home, she would always see her dad counting money and she was always confused as to how he was able to become so affluent without any subtle changes in employment. Although her home life was a lot different from other teenagers, he life in public was altered as well. She shared that when she was out on the town and one of her fathers' associates were present, they always picked up the check. Just as Hollywood tends to glamorize the American gangsters Marcia did so as well since some of, he biggest role models were harden criminals. Not everything taught was about crime or pertained to crime because she did mention how morals had a strong presence and importance because quitting never an option generosity as well as trust were critical to survival. Some people may think generosity is an easy concept while in a crime enviroment because money is seen as a given commodity. G enerosity didn't always have to do with money jobs or favors were sometime more valuable than the motive behind the job. She mentioned her Jewish faith and that played a drastic role in her life. She talked about her religious life and mentioned her prayer life and with my knowledge of Jewish religion I am aware of their trait rules and regulations. Such as prayer which happens three times a day, dietary habits with limitations and several festivals and days of remembrance. I know that Jewish teaching does not fall in line with the doctrine of Christianity. Because there are t wo main reasons, I know that Christianity and Judaism are different by biblical text and the sabbath . Messianic Jews and Christians equally take hold of the entire Hebrew Bible along with the New Testament yet, many Messianic Jews choose to live by the first five books of the Bible, called the Torah . In comparisons to Christians, we abide by the entire bible from genesis to revelation. Regarding the Sabbath, Messianic Jewish people have sabbath starting before sunset on Friday evening until Saturda y night. In contrast, historically Christians have been having the Sabbath on Sundays .
Saturday, March 14, 2020
buy custom The Positive Side of Pacifism essay Pacifism is a topic that has elicited fierce debates in many parts of the world, with people having varied opinions about it. However, pacifism can be preferable in some situations although it can be irrelevant at times. In many cases, pacifism of any nature whether it is religious or political has more benefits when applied compared to when it is not. This is because the sole philosophy behind this concept is opposed to war, or it proposes peaceful settlement of conflicts. In other words, pacifism has more things that are positive and should be embraced in most if not all situations. Peaceful approaches in solving disputes can be said to be beneficial to a society in a number of factors. First, war is an expensive affair. This means that using war to solve conflicts comes with immense budgetary repercussions that are left in the hands of a countrys budget. This means that a country can spend a lot of money pursuing its enemies by means of war and destroy lives. For instance, the engagement of the United States of America is the Middle East is a historical event that has led to colossal unnecessary federal spending. The United States reportedly experienced economic down turn with some economists attributing this to the military operations in the Middle East. In addition, many soldiers have lost their lives in the war, leading to a public demand that the war be terminated. It is arguably true that these huge sums of money could not have been spent if peaceful approaches were used. After all, the region is still unstable, meaning that war could not have been the bes t way to solve the problem. Pacifists can use this argument to support their views especially by using the results of war. Pacifism is also sensitive to the future ofthe human race. This is because it is built upon the fact that war can destroy an entire society. This implies that war can lead to wiping of an entire population and even lead to long-term effects of the war. A good example of this possibility is the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using atomic bombs. From this event, people living around this place are still affected by the chemicals that are used to make such weapons. Some people are born with biological defects while other suffered different health problems from the effects of the bombs. If peaceful negotiations were used by the involved countries, this could not have happened and the effects seen today would not have been there. If pacifism is also sought in the current stalemate between Iran and the United States, another effect of war such as the one witnessed in Japan could be avoided. A case for humanitarian intervention As much as people may want to be left alone to enjoy freedom, the world should regulate and monitor how this is done. The monitoring should be done via intergovernmental operations. This means that humanitarian intervention should be coordinated and supervise ethically for the benefit of the targeted populations. This should be the new rule because collective measures are likely to yield fair and just reason as to why a war should be launched in certain cases. This means that there should be a collective responsibility of justifying a war, especially when defending the innocent. According to the just war theory, war should be used sensibly especially by controlling the manner in which armed forces are organized. Such organizations should reach an agreement to venture into a war if there are sufficient reasons to do so, especially on humanitarian groundss. This implies that weapons should be handled in the most humane manner with the ultimate aim of establishing peace and justice. The Arab revolution in the recent past is a superb example of how just war can be used. It was evident beyond a reasonable doubt that the people of Libya have suffered so much in the hands of their slain leader Muammar Gaddafi. The decision by NATO to launch attacks against that Gaddafi regime was reached after it was agreed that these people deserved their freedom back. Although the decision by the allied forces attracted some criticism from some quotas, it can be defended by the fact that involved countries have no common political interests. The ongoing debate about Syria is a case that can be used to sort out the question of who to protect and who not to protect on a humanitarian basis. The ruling regime that has been branded as autocratic by the people of Syria is equally determined that it crashes any opposition that may arise. The incidents there show that it may be impossible for ordinary citizens to free themselves. Under such a situation, a just war approach should be considered with the aim of identifying who to protect. If what we see in such incidents is anything to go by, then a humanitarian action ought to be taken in the form of war for the sake of the citizens. The most valuable thing is to use a new intervention rule that will involve a reasonable global venture. Otherwise, deliberating about such decision individually may not work well because any war that would benefit a nation will be justified, leading a war prone world. The reason why there have been frequent wars after the World War II is that involv ed nations had private agendas, some of which were not accomplished to hitherto. Therefore, a war should be justified on an international platform. Buy custom The Positive Side of Pacifism essay
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Price Ceiling and Price Floor - Research Paper Example Defined in the simplest of terms, price controls can be defined as the definition of a certain maximum or minimum level of the prices by the Government at which a good will be available in the market. The two most basic level of price control mechanisms undertaken by the Government are Price Ceiling and Price Floor. The Price Ceiling is the maximum price at which a good can be sold in the market whereas Price Floor is the minimum price at which the good will be sold in the market. While price Ceiling is generally meant to save consumer interest, the price floor is intended towards saving the interest of the supplier. Price Ceilings can be categorized into two types: Binding Price ceilings are the one which is at a level lower than the equilibrium price and hence has a significant impact on the market equilibrium. Non-binding price ceilings are set at a level higher than the equilibrium level. Examples of price ceiling include setting up rent control in New York, while the setting of minimum wages is an example of a price floor. Price floors are often imposed during crises like wars, droughts or natural disasters. Price floors are generally set for agricultural products to save the interest of the farmers. Indonesia, where more than 20% of the population is below the poverty line, Government takes active participation in controlling the prices. In order to curb inflation, the Government of Indonesia has time and again imposed control on the price of rising. The price control is also aimed at helping farmers. Prior to this, the Government had imposed price controls on cement because of the strategic nature of the industry. The Government set a maximum retail price at which cement could be sold and allocated production and distribution quotas amongst all the players.Ã
Monday, February 10, 2020
Provide Information about Shadowing Experience of a Nurse Practitioner in a Primary Care Physician Office - Essay Example This paper will explain the shadowing experience of a nurse practitioner in a primary care physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s office. The care provided by nurse practitioners significantly varies from one country to another. The Pearson Report contains all the duties that are supposed to be performed by nurse practitioners. Further analysis also proves that nurse practitioners can perform several duties in different institutions including health centers, nursing homes, unique clinics and learning institutions (Buppert, 2003). Furthermore, nurse practitioners are licensed after completing the practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s program. Advancements in the discipline of nursing began in the mid-20th century. Research asserts that most of the changes in the field of nursing were implemented in this era. The office of primary care was set up in order to improve the accessibility, availability and value of care to individuals of a certain area. The primary care offices are liable for supplying primary care providers in various countries. In most states, the primary care unit has established a work plan that is designed to augment the supply of primary care physicians in order to meet the health care requirements. This work plan also entails the training programs which are employed in primary care, the primary care shadowing program and elective chances in primary care. The work plan also deals with the development of incentives for primary care. Such incentives include increasing the salaries of the primary care specialists and loan repayment factors (Buppert, 2003). Most health care companies prefer nurse practitioners who have significant physician assistant shadowing. Most health care experts usually undergo a shadowing experience which involves primary care. According to statistics in different countries, majority of patients originate from low and middle income populations. For example, in South Africa, most of the patients originate from the middle-class individuals; therefore, the primar y care centers in such regions employ many health care professionals (Buppert, 2003). In the past, health care students mostly participated in various projects, which were considered as voluntary actions (Buppert, 2003). These projects were executed because the profession of nursing practitioners is regulated by the country. In the recent past, it was reported that there is a shortage of primary care physicians in most of the health centers globally. In fact, most individuals developed the idea of substituting the primary care providers with nurse practitioners. To some extent, the nurses are able to act as substitutes for primary care providers since, they are quite learned. The primary care givers are responsible for the provision of several functions in health care. Some of the tasks performed by the primary care givers include; accessing the medical needs of the patients and comprehensive care of patients. Primary care physicians account to around 50% of the annual office visits that are made by physicians (Wexler, 2010). In fact, the primary care physicians are the only individuals who are able to provide proper health care that addresses a majority of the patients. This form of care has substantially yielded sustained partnership within community members and patients. Utilization of the primary care services has also reduced mortality and morbidity rates. These factors prove that primary care serv